|The physical means|
Villena is located to the northwest of the province of Alicante, in the region of the Vinalopó Stop. One is in an important crossroads between the Communities Valencian, Murcian and Castilian-of La Mancha, to which it is acceded in an hour by railcar. Its singular geographic enclave, around towns as Bihar, Sax, Source the Fig tree, Yecla and Caudete has caused that, from the antiquity, Villena is an important communications center known as the “Corridor Villena”. Its ample municipal term with 344 km2s, is the second with greater surface of the province of Alicante.
Villena presents some extreme temperatures that can oscillate between -3ºC and + 35ºC. On the other hand, the average temperature is placed in 6ºC in the month of January, whereas in July and August it is around 24ºC. Thermally Villena presents the own characteristics of the continentalización meseteña, that are pronounced in the existence of a true winter, and a summer in which an increase of the temperatures in the central hours of the day with very refreshing nights is stated.
The period of principles rains registers during the months of spring and autumn with very low levels: between 350 and 380 mm Thus, the number of days of rain in autumn in Villena is, on the average, of 11, whereas the spring characterizes by some precipitations of weaker or moderate tone. The precipitation high temperatures and shortage, along with the irregularity of these, illustrate the dryness of the villenense plain, that is surpassed as we came near towards the Eastern part of the Vinalopó Stop.
The population offers a rate of growth sustained from mid the last century, more in the last accentuated years thanks to the installation of industries that prevented the emigration of leftover manpower in the primary sector and to the rate of inmigranmtes.
During the Sixties v seventy, due to the height of footwear industry, it registers immigrations of other Spanish Communities, mainly of Castille-La Mancha and Andalusia. Nevertheless, at the moment the greater rate of immigration is of South America, Africa, Asia and the countries of the East, reaching a population that supposes a little more 6% of the total of the inhabitants.
The present population density is of 98 inhabitants by km2.
The villenense economy been traditionally has sustained in agriculture. Between main agricultural products we can emphasize: the vineyard, the olive tree, the cereal, the almond tree, the vegetables, the apple tree and the pear tree; cultures very favored by the important existing underground water wealth, in spite of the over-exploitation of water-bearing that suffers. The agri-foodstuffs agglutinate a set of transforming activities of agricultural products for the commercialization.
Nowadays footwear industry constitutes the main strongpoint of the economy of Villena, famous by her quality and design mainly in the manufacture of infantile and youthful footwear. On a par from the worn sector they arise a set of auxiliary industries (manufacture of pavements and coatings, blocks, bricks, electricity, etc.), that were impelled, due to the fort construction process in the near Mediterranean coast by the incidence of the tourism.
In the sector of the construction, except for little exceptions, they predominate the small and medium business. They also honor furniture industries, the textile, the meat industries, the graphical arts and the crafts.
Villena has become a city of local services around the commerce of preparation, footwear, electric home appliances and other activities carried out by other professionals, as advisers, real estate agents, administrative services, etc. The greater number of commercial establishments of the city corresponds to the branch of feeding, followed in importance by the dedicated ones to the preparation, the footwear, the ironworks and the electric home appliances.
The zone can fit within the areas of the intermontanos runners or prebéticos corridors. By its situation and configuration, a plateau with characteristics of transition between the landscape of La Mancha and the Levantine one is considered.
With regards its genesis, the present relief in the term of Villena and lines up is related to two factors: the climatic conditions and the typology of the rocky one. The zone is put under the action of a erosive system Mediterranean make clear in the precipitation rate and the temperatures, that the formation of glacies, boulevards favors and precipices, harnessed by the little vegetal cover that exists in some zones. I predominate of limestones, marls and clays pronounce in summits with microkart and arcillos spaces as the Cabezos.
The main mountainous units constitute them the Mountain range of Salt mines, where the maximum height in the Tip of the Chapel with 1,123 M.s of altitude is reached; the Peaks of Goatherd who is an isolated and quite abrupt formation; the Blond Rock, the Morrón and the Mountain range of Villa - whose skirts is the city. The lowest level is in the valley of the Alhorines (400 M.s).
Flora and fauna
Due to its great fisiográfica and faunística diversity, the natural patrimony of Villena is of great importance in the context of the province of Alicante.
In the Mountain range of Salt mines it is where Mediterranean Forest abounds the wooded vegetation more -, conserving ample zones of holm-oak forest and dense pine groves. It is the zone of greater faunística diversity of our territory, emphasizing gineta, the wild cat and the wild boar and, between the hunting animal that inhabit the field, encuetra the rabbit and the partridge. The diurnal and nocturnal predatory birds complete this relation. In other mountain ranges, of smaller arboreal vegetation as they are the Morrón and Blond Peña, the scrub dominated by rosemary, the juniper, savin, the thyme, the gorse, etc., plants predominates that widely are represented in these latitudes.
Within the term of Villena are also ambient substeppe - zones of very low and clarified vegetation, accompanied normally by cereal-like cultures, as it happens in the place of the Alhorines where the Primila Kestrel has been reintroduced. In other zones of the ample term are two species of unique birds in the province of Alicante: Ortega and the Little bustard.
Humid zones in the kitchen garden of Villena still exist, where they appear amphibious and a known fish as Fartet - very little whose only habitat is Morocco and the South-east of Spain. As far as the fauna, we can emphasize the animal of hunting as the rabbit and the partridge.
Villena is located in enclave strategic known as “Runner Vinalopó”, that has favored the development of some good infrastructures in the communications networks by railroad and with modern railcars that unite it to the Plateau and the Coast Of Alicante, as well as to Andalusia and Valencia.
In addition, through a series of local and local highways, one communicates with the neighboring towns that form the natural region of the Vinalopó river and with those of the bordering Alcoiá-Comtat, Vall de Albhelpa and towns between the provinces of Murcia and Albacete as they are Yecla and Caudete.
This communications network causes that in 40 minutes by railcar it is arrived at Alicante and the airport of the Altet, and in an hour with Valencia, Murcia and Albacete.
Source: M.I. City council of Villena - Council of Tourism